Bitcoin is an experimental digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network.
- BitCoin white paper: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System / Chinese version
- Mastering BitCoin / Chinese version / pdf download
- Bitcoin Improvement Proposals (BIPs)
- Mining visualization
- Web services
- Full nodes
Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third-party interference.
These apps run on a custom built blockchain, an enormously powerful shared global infrastructure that can move value around and represent the ownership of property.
- Ethereum white paper / Chinese version
- Mastering Ethereum / Chinese version
- Ethereum Yellow Paper / Chinese version
- Ethereum wiki
- Ethereum Design Rationale / Chinese version
- Ethereum problems
- Sharding roadmap
- Ethereum flavored WebAssembly (ewasm)
- ÐΞVp2p Wire Protocol
- Patricia Tree
- Accounts, Transactions, Gas, and Block Gas Limits in Ethereum
- Ethereum Improvement Proposals
- Important EIPs and ERCs
- EEA – Enterprise Ethereum: Private Blockchain For Enterprises
- What Is Enterprise Ethereum?
- What is The Enterprise Ethereum alliance?
- Benefits of Enterprise Ethereum
- Architecture Stack of the Enterprise Ethereum Blockchain
- What Are The Possible Enterprise Ethereum Use Cases?
- Ethereum Blockchain as a Service Providers
- Real-World Companies Using Enterprise Ethereum
- Final Words
Implement a consortium blockchain using ethereum
Implementation of Blockchain
- ATS: Functional Blockchain
- C#: Programming The Blockchain in C#
- Crystal: Write your own blockchain and PoW algorithm using Crystal
- C++: Blockchain from Scratch
- Go: Building Blockchain in Go / Chinese version 1 / Chinese version 2
- Go: Building A Simple Blockchain with Go
- Go: Code your own blockchain in less than 200 lines of Go
- Go: Code your own blockchain mining algorithm in Go
- Go: GoCoin – A full Bitcoin solution written in Go language (golang)
- Go: GoChain – A basic implementation of blockchain in go
- Go: Having fun implementing a blockchain using Golang
- Go: NaiveChain – A naive and simple implementation of blockchains
- Java: Creating Your First Blockchain with Java
- Java: Write a blockchain with java
- Kotlin: Let’s implement a cryptocurrency in Kotlin
- Python: A Practical Introduction to Blockchain with Python
- Python: Build your own blockchain: a Python tutorial
- Python: Learn Blockchains by Building One
- Python: Let’s Build the Tiniest Blockchain
- Python: write-your-own-blockchain
- Ruby: lets-build-a-blockchain
- Ruby: Programming Blockchains Step-by-Step (Manuscripts Book Edition)
- Scala: How to build a simple actor-based blockchain
- TypeScript: Naivecoin: a tutorial for building a cryptocurrency
- TypeScript: NaivecoinStake: a tutorial for building a cryptocurrency with the Proof of Stake consensus
Projects and Applications
Quorum is an Ethereum-based distributed ledger protocol with transaction/contract privacy and new consensus mechanisms.
Quorum is a fork of go-ethereum and is updated in line with go-ethereum releases.
Key enhancements over go-ethereum:
- Privacy – Quorum supports private transactions and private contracts through public/private state separation, and utilises peer-to-peer encrypted message exchanges (see Constellation and Tessera) for directed transfer of private data to network participants
- Alternative Consensus Mechanisms – with no need for POW/POS in a permissioned network, Quorum instead offers multiple consensus mechanisms that are more appropriate for consortium chains:
- Raft-based Consensus – a consensus model for faster blocktimes, transaction finality, and on-demand block creation
- Istanbul BFT – a PBFT-inspired consensus algorithm with transaction finality, by AMIS.
- Peer Permissioning – node/peer permissioning using smart contracts, ensuring only known parties can join the network
- Higher Performance – Quorum offers significantly higher performance than public geth
Monero is a private, secure, untraceable, decentralised digital currency. You are your bank, you control your funds, and nobody can trace your transfers unless you allow them to do so.
Privacy: Monero uses a cryptographically sound system to allow you to send and receive funds without your transactions being easily revealed on the blockchain (the ledger of transactions that everyone has). This ensures that your purchases, receipts, and all transfers remain absolutely private by default.
Security: Using the power of a distributed peer-to-peer consensus network, every transaction on the network is cryptographically secured. Individual wallets have a 25 word mnemonic seed that is only displayed once, and can be written down to backup the wallet. Wallet files are encrypted with a passphrase to ensure they are useless if stolen.
Untraceability: By taking advantage of ring signatures, a special property of a certain type of cryptography, Monero is able to ensure that transactions are not only untraceable, but have an optional measure of ambiguity that ensures that transactions cannot easily be tied back to an individual user or computer.
- Getmonero.org – The official Monero website
- Lab.getmonero.org – The official research group of Monero
- RPC documentation – RPC documentation of the Monero daemon
- Wallet documentation – Wallet documentation of the Monero daemon
- Cryptonote Whitepaper – White paper of cryptonote, the family of crypto-currencies of Monero
- Review of the Cryptonote White Paper – By the research lab of Monero
- Cryptonote Standards – The 10 Cryptonote standards (equivalent to BIPs for Bitcoin)
- How to get started
- What is Monero? Most Comprehensive Guide / Chinese version
- More resouces
IOTA is a revolutionary new transactional settlement and data integrity layer for the Internet of Things. It’s based on a new distributed ledger architecture, the Tangle, which overcomes the inefficiencies of current Blockchain designs and introduces a new way of reaching consensus in a decentralized peer-to-peer system. For the first time ever, through IOTA people can transfer money without any fees. This means that even infinitesimally small nanopayments can be made through IOTA.
IOTA is the missing puzzle piece for the Machine Economy to fully emerge and reach its desired potential. We envision IOTA to be the public, permissionless backbone for the Internet of Things that enables true interoperability between all devices.
- IOTA – Next Generation Blockchain
- Whitepaper – The Tangle / Chinese version
- A Primer on IOTA – A Primer on IOTA (with Presentation)
- IOTA China – IOTA China 首页
- IOTA Italia – IOTA Italia
- IOTA Korea – IOTA 한국
- IOTA Japan – IOTA 日本
- IOTA on Reddit
- How to get started
- IOTA Transactions, Confirmation and Consensus / Chinese version
- More resouces
EOSIO is software that introduces a blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications (the “EOSIO Software”). This is achieved through an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication and the scheduling of applications across multiple CPU cores and/or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that has the potential to scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees and allows for quick and easy deployment of decentralized applications. For more information, please read the EOS.IO Technical White Paper.
- EOS Wiki – High Level EOS Software Overview
- Technical White Paper – EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2
- EOS: An Introduction – Black Edition – Ian Grigg’s Whitepaper
- EOSIO Developer Portal – Official EOSIO developer portal, with docs, APIs etc.
- How to get started
- Language Support
IPFS (the InterPlanetary File System) is a new hypermedia distribution protocol, addressed by content and identities. IPFS enables the creation of completely distributed applications. It aims to make the web faster, safer, and more open.
IPFS is a distributed file system that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. In some ways, this is similar to the original aims of the Web, but IPFS is actually more similar to a single bittorrent swarm exchanging git objects. You can read more about its origins in the paper IPFS – Content Addressed, Versioned, P2P File System.
IPFS is becoming a new major subsystem of the internet. If built right, it could complement or replace HTTP. It could complement or replace even more. It sounds crazy. It is crazy.
- White Paper – Academic papers on IPFS / Chinese version
- Specs – Specifications on the IPFS protocol
- Notes – Various relevant notes and discussions (that do not fit elsewhere)
- Reading-list – Papers to read to understand IPFS
- Protocol Implementations
- HTTP Client Libraries
- More resouces
- Blockchain guide by Baohua Yang, 2017 — Introduce blockchain related technologies, from theory to practice with bitcoin, ethereum and hyperledger.
- Blockchain: from Digital Currency to Credit Society
- Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard, London, 2017 — What is a bitcoin? ++ The Bitcoin ideology ++ The incredible promises of Bitcoin! ++ Early Bitcoin: the rise to the first bubble ++ How Bitcoin mining centralised ++ Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? ++ Spending bitcoins in 2017 ++ Trading bitcoins in 2017: the second crypto bubble ++ Altcoins ++ Smart contracts, stupid humans ++ Business bafflegab, but on the Blockchain ++ Case study: Why you can’t put the music industry on a blockchain
- Mastering Bitcoin – Programming the Open Blockchain 2nd Edition, by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, 2017 – FREE (Online Source Version) — What Is Bitcoin? ++ How Bitcoin Works ++ Bitcoin Core: The Reference Implementation ++ Keys, Addresses ++ Wallets ++ Transactions ++ Advanced Transactions and Scripting ++ The Bitcoin Network ++ The Blockchain ++ Mining and Consensus ++ Bitcoin Security ++ Blockchain Applications
- Programming Blockchains in Ruby from Scratch Step-by-Step Starting w/ Crypto Hashes… ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2018 – FREE (Online Version) — (Crypto) Hash ++ (Crypto) Block ++ (Crypto) Block with Proof-of-Work ++ Blockchain! Blockchain! Blockchain! ++ Blockchain Broken? ++ Timestamping ++ Mining, Mining, Mining – What’s Your Hash Rate? ++ Bitcoin, Bitcoin, Bitcoin ++ (Crypto) Block with Transactions (Tx)
- Programming Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains in Ruby ( Beta / Rough Draft ) by Gerald Bauer et al, 2018 – FREE (Online Version) @ Yuki & Moto Press Bookshelf — Digital $$$ Alchemy – What’s a Blockchain? – How-To Turn Digital Bits Into $$$ or €€€? • Decentralize Payments. Decentralize Transactions. Decentralize Blockchains. • The Proof of the Pudding is … The Bitcoin (BTC) Blockchain(s) ++ Building Blockchains from Scratch – A Blockchain in Ruby in 20 Lines! A Blockchain is a Data Structure • What about Proof-of-Work? What about Consensus? • Find the Lucky Number – Nonce == Number Used Once ++ Adding Transactions – The World’s Worst Database – Bitcoin Blockchain Mining • Tulips on the Blockchain! Adding Transactions ++ Blockchain Lite – Basic Blocks • Proof-of-Work Blocks • Transactions ++ Merkle Tree – Build Your Own Crypto Hash Trees; Grow Your Own Money on Trees • What’s a Merkle Tree? • Transactions ++ Central Bank – Run Your Own Federated Central Bank Nodes on the Blockchain Peer-to-Peer over HTTP • Inside Mining – Printing Cryptos, Cryptos, Cryptos on the Blockchain ++ Awesome Crypto ++ Case Studies – Dutch Gulden • Shilling • CryptoKitties (and CryptoCopycats)
- Blockchain for Dummies, IBM Limited Edition by Manav Gupta, 2017 – FREE (Digital Download w/ Email) — Grasping Blockchain Fundamentals ++ Taking a Look at How Blockchain Works ++ Propelling Business with Blockchains ++ Blockchain in Action: Use Cases ++ Hyperledger, a Linux Foundation Project ++ Ten Steps to Your First Blockchain application
- Get Rich Quick “Business Blockchain” Bible – The Secrets of Free Easy Money, 2018 – FREE — Step 1: Sell hot air. How? ++ Step 2: Pump up your tokens. How? ++ Step 3: Revolutionize the World. How?
- Mastering Ethereum – Building Contract Services and Decentralized Apps on the Blockchain – by Andreas M. Antonopoulos, Gavin Wood, 2018 – FREE (Online Source Version) What is Ethereum ++ Introduction ++ Ethereum Clients ++ Ethereum Testnets ++ Keys and Addresses ++ Wallets ++ Transactions ++ Contract Services ++ Tokens ++ Oracles ++ Accounting & Gas ++ EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) ++ Consensus ++ DevP2P (Peer-To-Peer) Protocol ++ Dev Tools and Frameworks ++ Decentralized Apps ++ Ethereum Standards (EIPs/ERCs)
- Best of Bitcoin Maximalist – Scammers, Morons, Clowns, Shills & BagHODLers – Inside The New New Crypto Ponzi Economics, 2018 – FREE
- Crypto Facts – Decentralize Payments – Efficient, Low Cost, Fair, Clean – True or False?, 2018 – FREE
- IslandCoin White Paper – A Pen and Paper Cash System – How to Run a Blockchain on a Deserted Island by Tal Kol — Motivation ++ Consensus ++ Transaction and Block Specification – Transaction format • Block format • Genesis block ++ References
Public Blockchain Identity
- Blockstack – Platform for decentralized, server-less apps where users control their data. Identity included.
- Evernym – Self-Sovereign identity built on top of open source permissioned blockchain.
- Jolocom – Self-sovereing identity wallet.
- SIN – Proposed identity protocol for BitCoin.
- uPort – Self-Sovereign identity on Ethereum by ConsenSys.
Blockchain as a collateral
- ShoCard – Proprietary digital identity service, uses blockchain for time-stamping and secure documents exchange.
- Tradle – Makes a bank on blockchain, identity as a collateral.
- KYC Chain – Secure platform for sharing verifiable identity claims, data or documents among financial institutions.
- ObjectChain Collab – Cross-industry collaboration over distributed identity.
- UniquID – Identity both for people and devices.
- Vida Identity – Enterprise-grade Blockchain Identity Software.
- ID3 – Institute for Data Driven Design, explores issues around self-sovereign identity, and distributed organizations.
- OpenCreds – W3C Credentials Community Group.
- TAO Network Identity – Description of blockchain identity by Tao.Network.
Internet of Things Applications
- Chronicled – IoT devices registry on blockchain.
- Filament – Software and hardware for decentralized Intranet of Things systems
- IOTA – Decentralized Internet of Things token on blockless blockchain.
- Machinomy – Distributed platform for IoT micropayments.
- Project Oaken – IoT blockchain platform.
- Slock.it – Ethereum-based platform for building Shared Things.
- bankymoon – Blockchain consultancy. Presented bitcoin-topped smart electricity meter. Once topped up, it chooses a plan, and starts moving energy.
- Co-Tricity – Decentralised energy marketplace by Innogy and ConsenSys.
- Electron – Reinventing energy on blockchain.
- GridSingularity – Blockchain for Smart Grid. Declare three years of work on the technology.
- lo3 energy – Energy Services, Product Research & Development. Makers of Brooklyn Microgrid along with ConsenSys.
- lumo – Energy provider. Experiment with blockchain.
- PowerLedger – Decentralised energy marketpace.
- PowerPeers – Peer-to-peer energy marketplace in the Netherlands.
- Solar Change – Makers of Solar Coin. AltCoin for a MW of solar power.
- Terraledger – Provider of Renewable Energy Certificates.
- ImpactPPA – Reinvesting of power generated under Power Purchase Agreement in more PPAs.