BitCoin

Bitcoin is an experimental digital currency that enables instant payments to anyone, anywhere in the world. Bitcoin uses peer-to-peer technology to operate with no central authority: managing transactions and issuing money are carried out collectively by the network.

Ethereum

Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third-party interference.

These apps run on a custom built blockchain, an enormously powerful shared global infrastructure that can move value around and represent the ownership of property.

Consortium Blockchain

Fabric

FISCO-BCOS

Releated Tools

Solidity
truffle
web3.js
Implementation of Blockchain

Projects and Applications

Quorum

Quorum is an Ethereum-based distributed ledger protocol with transaction/contract privacy and new consensus mechanisms.

Quorum is a fork of go-ethereum and is updated in line with go-ethereum releases.

Key enhancements over go-ethereum:

  • Privacy – Quorum supports private transactions and private contracts through public/private state separation, and utilises peer-to-peer encrypted message exchanges (see Constellation and Tessera) for directed transfer of private data to network participants
  • Alternative Consensus Mechanisms – with no need for POW/POS in a permissioned network, Quorum instead offers multiple consensus mechanisms that are more appropriate for consortium chains:
    • Raft-based Consensus – a consensus model for faster blocktimes, transaction finality, and on-demand block creation
    • Istanbul BFT – a PBFT-inspired consensus algorithm with transaction finality, by AMIS.
  • Peer Permissioning – node/peer permissioning using smart contracts, ensuring only known parties can join the network
  • Higher Performance – Quorum offers significantly higher performance than public geth
Monero

Monero is a private, secure, untraceable, decentralised digital currency. You are your bank, you control your funds, and nobody can trace your transfers unless you allow them to do so.

Privacy: Monero uses a cryptographically sound system to allow you to send and receive funds without your transactions being easily revealed on the blockchain (the ledger of transactions that everyone has). This ensures that your purchases, receipts, and all transfers remain absolutely private by default.

Security: Using the power of a distributed peer-to-peer consensus network, every transaction on the network is cryptographically secured. Individual wallets have a 25 word mnemonic seed that is only displayed once, and can be written down to backup the wallet. Wallet files are encrypted with a passphrase to ensure they are useless if stolen.

Untraceability: By taking advantage of ring signatures, a special property of a certain type of cryptography, Monero is able to ensure that transactions are not only untraceable, but have an optional measure of ambiguity that ensures that transactions cannot easily be tied back to an individual user or computer.

IOTA

IOTA is a revolutionary new transactional settlement and data integrity layer for the Internet of Things. It’s based on a new distributed ledger architecture, the Tangle, which overcomes the inefficiencies of current Blockchain designs and introduces a new way of reaching consensus in a decentralized peer-to-peer system. For the first time ever, through IOTA people can transfer money without any fees. This means that even infinitesimally small nanopayments can be made through IOTA.

IOTA is the missing puzzle piece for the Machine Economy to fully emerge and reach its desired potential. We envision IOTA to be the public, permissionless backbone for the Internet of Things that enables true interoperability between all devices.

EOS

EOSIO is software that introduces a blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications (the “EOSIO Software”). This is achieved through an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication and the scheduling of applications across multiple CPU cores and/or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that has the potential to scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees and allows for quick and easy deployment of decentralized applications. For more information, please read the EOS.IO Technical White Paper.

IPFS

IPFS (the InterPlanetary File System) is a new hypermedia distribution protocol, addressed by content and identities. IPFS enables the creation of completely distributed applications. It aims to make the web faster, safer, and more open.

IPFS is a distributed file system that seeks to connect all computing devices with the same system of files. In some ways, this is similar to the original aims of the Web, but IPFS is actually more similar to a single bittorrent swarm exchanging git objects. You can read more about its origins in the paper IPFS – Content Addressed, Versioned, P2P File System.

IPFS is becoming a new major subsystem of the internet. If built right, it could complement or replace HTTP. It could complement or replace even more. It sounds crazy. It is crazy.

Filecoin
BigchainDB
BitShares

Further Extension

Books

Applications

Identity Applications
Public Blockchain Identity
  • Blockstack – Platform for decentralized, server-less apps where users control their data. Identity included.
  • Evernym – Self-Sovereign identity built on top of open source permissioned blockchain.
  • Jolocom – Self-sovereing identity wallet.
  • SIN – Proposed identity protocol for BitCoin.
  • uPort – Self-Sovereign identity on Ethereum by ConsenSys.
Blockchain as a collateral
  • ShoCard – Proprietary digital identity service, uses blockchain for time-stamping and secure documents exchange.
  • Tradle – Makes a bank on blockchain, identity as a collateral.
Unclear
  • KYC Chain – Secure platform for sharing verifiable identity claims, data or documents among financial institutions.
  • ObjectChain Collab – Cross-industry collaboration over distributed identity.
  • UniquID – Identity both for people and devices.
  • Vida Identity – Enterprise-grade Blockchain Identity Software.
Guidance
  • ID3 – Institute for Data Driven Design, explores issues around self-sovereign identity, and distributed organizations.
  • OpenCreds – W3C Credentials Community Group.
  • TAO Network Identity – Description of blockchain identity by Tao.Network.
Internet of Things Applications
  • Chronicled – IoT devices registry on blockchain.
  • Filament – Software and hardware for decentralized Intranet of Things systems
  • IOTA – Decentralized Internet of Things token on blockless blockchain.
  • Machinomy – Distributed platform for IoT micropayments.
  • Project Oaken – IoT blockchain platform.
  • Slock.it – Ethereum-based platform for building Shared Things.
Energy Applications
  • bankymoon – Blockchain consultancy. Presented bitcoin-topped smart electricity meter. Once topped up, it chooses a plan, and starts moving energy.
  • Co-Tricity – Decentralised energy marketplace by Innogy and ConsenSys.
  • Electron – Reinventing energy on blockchain.
  • GridSingularity – Blockchain for Smart Grid. Declare three years of work on the technology.
  • lo3 energy – Energy Services, Product Research & Development. Makers of Brooklyn Microgrid along with ConsenSys.
  • lumo – Energy provider. Experiment with blockchain.
  • PowerLedger – Decentralised energy marketpace.
  • PowerPeers – Peer-to-peer energy marketplace in the Netherlands.
  • Solar Change – Makers of Solar Coin. AltCoin for a MW of solar power.
  • Terraledger – Provider of Renewable Energy Certificates.
  • ImpactPPA – Reinvesting of power generated under Power Purchase Agreement in more PPAs.
Media and Journalism
  • Steem – Decentralized social network which incentivises content creation and curation.
  • PopChest – Incentivized distributed video platform.
  • Civil – Decentralized newsmaking platform.